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Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Armed Forces Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder:

A Systematic Review and Focus Group

About the Course

Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an emerging treatment for people diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the limited accessibility of psychotherapies. This research aims to determine the guidelines for developing a Virtual Reality–War Scenario program for Armed Forces veterans with PTSD and encompasses two studies: Study 1, a systematic electronic database review; Study 2, a focus group of twenty-two Portuguese Armed Forces veterans. Results showed a positive impact of VRET on PTSD; however, there were no group differences in most of the studies. Further, according to veterans, new VRET programs should be combined with the traditional therapy and must consider as requirements the sense of presence, dynamic scenarios, realistic feeling, and multisensorial experience. Regardless, these findings suggest VRET as a co-creation process, which requires more controlled, personalized, and in-depth research on its clinical applicability.

This course is based on the reading-based online article, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Armed Forces Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: created by Ana Vianez, et al. in 2022.

Publication Date:

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 464. Jan 2022

Course Material Authors

Course Material Authors authored the material only, and were not involved in creating this CE course. They are identified here for your own evaluation of the relevancy of the material this course is based on.

Ana Vianez
Ana Vianez is affiliated with the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Laboratory, Center for Rehabilitation Research, School of Health, Polytechnic Institute of Porto in Porto, Portugal.
António Marques, Ph.D.
António Marques, Ph.D., has held several HEI managing positions in the last eight years, including Vice President of the Polytechnic Institute of Porto, President of the Scientific Council and Ethical Commission, and Vice President of the School of Health (ESS-P.PORTO). Currently, he is the Director of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Lab (LabRP) - Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Porto/ Health School, Polytechnic of Porto. He is also co-coordinator of the Porto Interactive Neuroscience Group, the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Research Group of the São João Hospital, and the Porto Metropolitan Area Network of Psychosocial Rehabilitation Institutions. Dr. Marques is a member of the directive board of P.PORTO Virtual and Augmented Reality Competencies Center and of the Center for Rehabilitation Research (CIR). His main research areas are psychosocial rehabilitation and mental health, and virtual and augmented reality, being responsible for several postgraduate courses, I&D projects, master and Ph.D. theses in these fields.
Raquel Simões de Almeida, Ph.D.
Raquel Simões de Almeida, Ph.D., is a full time Professor at ESS-P.Porto. She is also a researcher at the Center for Rehabilitation Research (Psychosocial Rehabilitation Lab) and an invited lecturer at Escola Superior de Saúde de Santa Maria. Prior, she worked for 10 years as an occupational therapist and developed lifestyle redesign programs that seek to provide people who experience mental health problems with strategies and opportunities to increase participation in identified meaningful activities for life satisfaction and to positively impact physical and mental health. Some of her interests are: lifestyle redesign, new digital therapies and technologies transforming healthcare (virtual reality, mHealth), active living, mental health, and well-being.

Course Creator

Elizabeth Mosco, Ph.D., PMH-C, CPLC
Elizabeth Mosco, Ph.D. is a licensed psychologist in Reno, NV. She opened a private practice after 10 years of conducting home-based assessment and therapy with the VA Sierra Nevada Health Care System. Dr. Mosco’s clinical interests include maternal mental health, older adults, and third wave cognitive behavioral therapies.

Recommended For:

Counselors, marriage and family therapists, psychologists and social workers. This course is appropriate for all levels of knowledge.

Course Objectives:

After taking this course, you should be able to:

  1. List the evidenced-based psychotherapies to date for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
  2. Describe Virtual Reality Therapy for PTSD (VRET).
  3. List at least 2 suggestions from a veteran focus group regarding VRET.
  4. Summarize the effectiveness of VRET.

Disclosure to Learners

Disclosure of Relevant Financial Relationships

CE Learning Systems adheres to the ACCME's Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited Continuing Medical Education. Any individuals in a position to control the content of a CE activity – including faculty, planners, reviewers, or others ― are required to disclose all relevant financial relationships with ineligible entities (formerly known as commercial interests).

The following relevant financial relationships have been disclosed by this activity's planners, faculty, and the reviewer:

Planners and Reviewers

The planners of this activity have reported that they have no relevant financial relationships.

Faculty: Elizabeth Mosco, Ph.D., PMH-C, CPLC

No relevant financial relationships.

Commercial support

There is no commercial support for this distance-learning course.

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Course Number 103305
1.25 CE credit hour
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  • Reading-Based Online
Exam Fee $7.46
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