This review discusses the importance of investigating both sex and gender differences in addiction and relapse in studies of humans and in animal models. Addiction is both a cultural and biological phenomenon. Sex and gender differences are not solely determined by our biology, nor are they entirely cultural; there are interactions between biology and the environment that are continuously played out throughout development. Lessons from the historical record illustrate how context and attitudes affect the way that substance use in men and women is regarded. Finally, cultural and environmental influences may differentially affect men and women and affect how they respond to drugs of abuse and to treatment protocols.
This course is based on the reading-based online article, Sociocultural Context for Sex Differences in Addiction created by Jill B. Becker, PhD, Michelle McClellan, PhD, and Beth Glover Reed, PhD in 2016.
Course Material Authors
Course Material Authors authored the material only, and were not involved in creating this CE course. They are identified here for your own evaluation of the relevancy of the material this course is based on.
Jill B. Becker, PhD
Dr. Becker has been studying sex differences in and sexual differentiation of the neural systems mediating drug abuse and motivation for over thirty years. Experiments in the laboratory investigate the effects of psychomotor stimulants on behavior in rat and how ovarian hormones act in the brain to influence drug taking behaviors. She has published multiple papers.
Michelle McClellan, PhD
Dr. McClellan is an Assistant Professor in the history department at University of Michigan. She is an active public historian, has worked in a house museum, curated exhibits, and supervised preservation projects. She has been working on Bringing Big Data to Studies of the Epigenetics of Gender and Addiction along with her co-authors.
Beth Glover Reed, PhD
Dr. Reed's current research is designed to a) identify approaches for working both on alcohol and other drug problems (AOD) and intimate partner violence (IPV) together; b) explore why joint work occurs infrequently despite need, and c) determine what can enhance effective attention to both issues together. Other areas of research/scholarly interest focus on educational strategies and other interventions to increase social justice and social justice practice, and the application of multiple types of theorizing, including feminisms, to social justice, social problems and social change.
Francesca Paladino Lux is a Licensed Professional Counselor Supervisor, Certified Clinical Supervisor, and Licensed Clinical Addictions Specialist. She has earned a Graduate Certificate specialty in Substance Use Counseling. She also has completed a specialty track in school counseling with a special interest in Play Therapy and Filial Therapy. Francesca has been in the helping profession since 2002, when she obtained her Master’s Degree in Counseling, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a rigorous CACREP accredited program.
Counselors, marriage and family therapists, psychologists and social workers. This course is appropriate for all levels of knowledge.
After taking this course, you should be able to:
Define the terms sex and gender and describe their cultural context
Identify Sex and Gender differences related to Addiction
To recall environmental Influences, Historical Perspectives and the use of drugs
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Course Material Authors
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